Liens proposés :
Le Centre Canadien de Sécurité des Télécommunications : http://www.cse.dnd.ca/
Le GCHQ britannique : http://www.gchq.gov.uk/
Le site de la CIA : http://www.odci.gov/cia/
L'Agence américaine de Sécurité Nationale (NSA) : http://www.nsa.gov/
Sur l'Agence américaine de Sécurité Nationale (NSA) : http://www.fas.org/irp/nsa/
Le Defence Signal Directorate australien : http://www.dsd.gov.au/
Sur le réseau Ukusa : http://www.tscm.com/cseukusa.html
Le site de Tonin : http://www.chez.com/tonin
Images dissimulées: http://www.psd.org/Iris/
Pas de plainte côté français -- et Frenchelon reste tabou (Zdnet 12/02)
Le site de "Jane's defence" sur
le monde du renseignement : http://intelweb.janes.com/
1.UKUSA refers to the 1947 United Kingdom - United States agreement on Signals intelligence. The nations of the UKUSA alliance are the United States (the "First Party"), United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand (the "Second Parties").
2."An appraisal of the Technologies of
Political Control", Steve Wright, Omega Foundation, European Parliament
(STOA), 6 January 1998.
3."They've got it taped", Duncan
Campbell, New Statesman, 12 August 1988. "Secret Power : New Zealand's
Role in the International Spy Network", Nicky Hager, Craig Potton Publishing,
PO Box 555, Nelson, New Zealand, 1996.
4.National Security Council Intelligence Directive
No 6, National Security Council of the United States, 17 February 1972 (first
issued in 1952).
5.SIGINT is currently defined as consisting
of COMINT, ELINT (electronic or non-communications intelligence and FISINT (Foreign
Instrumentation Signals Intelligence).
6.Statement by Martin Brady, Director of DSD,
16 March 1999. To be broadcast on the Sunday Programme, Channel 9 TV (Australia),
7."Farewell", despatch to all NSA
staff, William Studeman, 8 April 1992. The two business areas to which Studeman
referred were "increased global access" and "SMO" (support
to military operations).
8.Federalnoe Agenstvo Pravitelstvennoi Svyazi
i Informatsii, the (Russian) Federal Agency for Government Communications and
Information. FAPSI's functions extend beyond Comint and include providing government
and commercial communications systems.
9.Private communications from former NSA and
10.Sensitive Compartmented Intelligence.
11.See note 1.
12. Private communications from former GCHQ
employees; the US Act is the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA).
13. See note 6.
14. In 1919, US commercial cable companies
attempted to resist British government demands for access to all cables sent
overseas. Three cable companies testified to the US Senate about these practices
in December 1920. In the same year, the British Government introduced legislation
(the Official Secrets Act, 1920, section 4) providing access to all or any specified
class of communications. The same power was recodified in 1985, providing lawful
access for Comint purposes to all "external communications", defines
as any communications which are sent from or received outside the UK (Interception
of Communication Act 1984, Section 3(2)). Similar requirements on telecommunications
operators are made in the laws of the other UKUSA countries. See also "Operation
SHAMROCK", (section 3).
15."The Puzzle Palace", James Bamford,
Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1982, p331.
16.Personal communications from former NSA
and GCHQ employees.
17."Dispatches : The Hill", transmitted
by Channel 4 Television (UK), 6 October 1993. DODJOCC stood for Department of
Defense Joint Operations Centre Chicksands.
18."The Justice Game", Geoffrey
Robertson, Chapter 5, Chatto and Windus, London, 1998
19.Fink report to the House Committee on Government
Operations, 1975, quoted in "NSA spies on the British government",
New Statesman, 25 July 1980
20."Amerikanskiye sputniki radioelektronnoy
razvedki na Geosynchronnykh orbitakh" ("American Geosynchronous SIGINT
Satellites"), Major A Andronov, Zarubezhnoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, No.12,
1993, pps 37-43.
21."Space collection", in The US
Intelligence Community (fourth edition), Jeffrey Richelson, Westview, Boulder,
Colorado, 1999, pages 185-191.
22.See note 18.
23.Richelson, op cit.
24."UK Eyes Alpha", Mark Urban,
Faber and Faber, London, 1996, pps 56-65.
25.Besides the stations mentioned, a major
ground station whose targets formerly included Soviet COMSATs is at Misawa,
Japan. Smaller ground stations are located at Cheltenham, England; Shoal Bay,
26."Sword and Shield : The Soviet Intelligence
and Security Apparatus", Jeffrey Richelson, Ballinger, Cambridge, Massachusetts,
27."Les Francais aussi ecountent leurs
allies", Jean Guisnel, Le Point, 6 June 1998.
28.Intelligence (Paris), 93, 15 February 1999,
29."Blind mans Bluff : the untold story
of American submarine espionage", Sherry Sontag and Christopher Drew, Public
Affairs, New York, 1998.
32.A specimen of the IVY BELLS tapping equipment
is held in the former KGB museum in Moscow. It was used on a cable running from
Moscow to a nearby scientific and technical institution.
33.TCP/IP. TCP/IP stands for Terminal Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol. IP is the basic network layer of the Internet.
34.GCHQ website at http://www.gchq.gov.uk/technol.html
35.Personal communication from DERA. A Terabyte
is one thousand Gigabytes, i.e., 1012 bytes.
36.Personal communication from John Young.
37."Puzzle palace conducting internet
surveillance", Wayne Madsen, Computer Fraud and Security Bulletin, June
39."More Naked Gun than Top Gun",
Duncan Campbell, Guardian, 26 November 1997.
40."Spyworld", Mike Frost and Michel
Gratton, Doubleday Canada, Toronto, 1994.
41.The National Security Agency and Fourth
Amendment Rights, Hearings before the Select Committee to Study Government Operations
with Respect to Intelligence Activitities, US Senate, Washington, 1976.
42.Letter from, Lt Gen Lew Allen, Director
of NSA to US Attorney General Elliot Richardson, 4 October 1973; contained in
the previous document.
44.World in Action, Granada TV.
45.This arrangements appears to be an attempt
to comply with legal restrictions in the Interception of Communications Act
1985, which prohibit GCHQ from handling messages except those identified in
government "certificates" which "describe the intercepted material
which should be examined". The Act specifies that "so much of the
intercepted material as is not certified by the certificate is not [to be] read,
looked at or listened to by any person". It appears from this that, although
all messages passing through the United Kingdom are intercepted and sent to
GCHQ's London office, the organisation considers that by having British Telecom
staff operate the Dictionary computer, it is still under the control of the
telecommunications network operator unless and until it is selected by the Dictionary
and passes from BT to GCHQ.
47."Naval Security Group Detachment,
Sugar Grove History for 1990", US Navy, 1 April 1991.
48.Missions, functions and tasks of Naval
Security Group Activity (NAVSECGRUACT) Sugar Grove, West Virginia", NAVSECGRU
INSTRUCTION C5450.48A, 3 September 1991.
49.Report on tasks of Detachment 3 , 544 Air
Intelligence Group, Air Intelligence Agency Almanac, US Air Force, 1998-99.
50.Ibid, Detachment 2, 544 Air Intelligence
51.Information obtained by Bill Robinson,
Conrad Grebel College, Waterloo, Ontario. CDF and CFS documents were obtained
under the Freedom of Information Act, or published on the World Wide Web.
52.Career resume of Patrick D Duguay, published
53.CSE Financial Status Report, 1 March 1996,
released under the Freedom of Information Act. Further details about "ECHELON"
were not provided. It is therefore ambiguous as to whether the expenditure was
intended for the ECHELON computer system, or for different functions (for example
telecommunications or power services).
54."Secret Power", op cit.
55.Twenty/Twenty, TV3 (New Zealand), October
56.Interview with David Herson, Head of Senior
Officers' Group on Information Security, EU, by staff of Engineering Weekly
(Denmark), 25 September 1996. Published at http://www.ing.dk/arkiv/herson.htm
57.Council Resolution on the Lawful Interception
of Telecommunications, 17 January 1995, (96C_329/01)
58."International Harmonisation of Technical
Requirements for Legal Interception of Telecommunications", Resolution
1115, Tenth Plenary meeting of the ITU Council, Geneva, 27 June 1997.
59.ENFOPOL 98, Draft Resolution of the Council
on Telecommunications Interception in respect of New Technology. Submitted by
the Austrian Presidency. Brussels, 3 September 1998.
60.ENFOPOL 19, 13 March 1999.
61.European Parliament, 14 September 1998.
62."Uncle Sam's Eavesdroppers",
Close Up North, BBC North, 3 December 1998; reported in "Star Wars strikes
back", Guardian, 3 December 1998
63."Dispatches : The Hill", Channel
4 Television (UK), 6 October 1993
65."Mixing business with spying; secret
information is passed routinely to U.S.", Scott Shane, Baltimore Sun, 1
66."UK Eyes Alpha", op cit, p235.
68.See note 62.
69.Raytheon Corp press release: published
70."America's Fortress of Spies",
Scott Shane and Tom Bowman, Baltimore Sun 3 December 1995.
71."Company Spies", Robert Dreyfuss,
Mother Jones, May/June 1994.
72.Financial Post, Canada, 28 February 1998.
73.European Parliament, 16 September 1998.
74.See note 56.
75.Equivalent communications may be known
as Synchronous Transport Module (STM) signals within the Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy (ITU standard); Synchronous Transport Signals (STS) within the US
SONET system; or as Optical Carrier signals (OC).
76.The information about these Sigint systems
has been drawn from open sources (only).
77.In April 199, the peak data rate at MAE
West was less than 1.9 Gbps.
78.Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks.
79.Very Small Aperture Terminal; SCPC is Single
Channel Per Carrier.
80."Collected Signals Data Format";
defined in US Signals Intelligence Directive 126 and in NSA's CSDF manual. Two
associated NSA publications providing further guidance are the Voice Processing
Systems Data Element Dictionary and the Facsimile Data Element Dictionary, both
issued in March 1997.
81.The Data Workstation processes TCP/IP,
PP, SMTP, POP3, MIME, HDLC, X.25, V.100, and modem protocols up to and including
V.42 (see glossary).
82."Practical Blind Demodulators for
high-order QAM signals", J R Treichler, M G Larimore and J C Harp, Proc
IEEE, 86, 10, 1998, p1907. Mr Treichler is technical director of AST. The paper
describes a system used to intercept multiple V.34 signals, extendable to the
more recent protocols.
83.The tasks were set in the second Text Retrieval
conference(TREC) organised by the ARPA and the US National Institute of Science
and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland. The 7th annual TREC conference
took place in Maryland in 1999.
84."Method of retrieving documents that
concern the same topic"; US Patent number 5418951, issued 23 May 1995;
inventor, Marc Damashek; rights assigned to NSA.
85.Address to the Symposium on "National
Security and National Competitiveness : Open Source Solutions" by Vice
Admiral William Studeman, Deputy Director of Central Intelligence and former
director of NSA, 1 December 1992, McLean, Virginia.
86.For example, IBM Via Voice, Dragon Naturally
Speaking, Lemout and Hauspe Voice Xpress.
87."A Hidden Markov Model based keyword
recognition system", R.C.Rose and D.B.Paul, Proceedings of the International
Conference on Accoustics, Speech and Signal processing, April 1990.
88.Centre de Recherche Informatique de Montreal.
89."Projet detection des Themes",
CRIM, 1997; published at http://www.crim.ca/adi/projet2.html.
91.NSA/CSS Classification Guide, NSA, revised
1 April 1983.
92."Rigging the game: Spy Sting",
Tom Bowman, Scott Shane, Baltimore Sun, 10 December 1995.
93."Wer ist der Befugte Vierte?",
Der Spiegel, 36, 1996, pp. 206-7.
94."Secret Swedish E-Mail Can Be Read
by the U.S.A", Fredrik Laurin, Calle Froste, Svenska Dagbladet, 18 November
95. Des articles du “Monde” (mois de Février, Mars et Avril 2000)